Instruments of Learning: Know the Worth of Educational Tools

Have you ever wondered why some musical instruments cost millions of dollars? What could make an instrument worth that much money, and how is it different from other instruments that are more affordable? But does this difference in value and quality extend beyond the world of music? Can we apply similar principles to educational tools and instruments?

Perhaps. Whether it is a digital tool that engages students with interactive content, a hands-on activity that encourages critical thinking and problem-solving, or a traditional tool like a textbook or chalkboard that forms the backbone of classroom instruction, the quality and effectiveness of educational instruments can have a significant impact on student outcomes. In this article we will explore (I) a short history of educational instruments and (II) how teachers should differentiate between these.


Journal of Digital Pedagogy – ISSN 3008 – 2021
2023, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 3-7


I. From Socrates to Smartboards

Just as a Stradivarius violin requires an exquisite blend of materials and craftsmanship to produce its unparalleled sound, the educational landscape thrives when equipped with tools and instruments that mirror the same meticulous attention to detail, quality, and efficacy. These remarkable instruments wield the power to amplify student learning and pave the way for a resounding success.

The history of educational instruments stretches back to antiquity when civilizations like the Sumerians and Egyptians used symbolic pictographs and hieroglyphics as the foundations of teaching reading and writing. Even in ancient Greece, the great philosopher Socrates employed a technique of probing questions, with these questions serving as instruments for a form of instrumentalised methodology to foster learning.

In the Middle Ages, manuscripts and textbooks surged in popularity, accompanied by a host of instruments like abacuses, astrolabes, and compasses that brought mathematics and science to life. The ground-breaking invention of the printing press in the 15th century revolutionized education by enabling the mass production of books, unleashing an era of knowledge dissemination and textbooks as invaluable teaching tools.

The 19th century witnessed remarkable advancements in educational instruments, epitomized by the birth of the blackboard and its trusty companion, the chalkboard eraser. With these visual aids, teachers could vividly illustrate concepts and diagrams, revolutionizing the way knowledge was imparted. It was during this period that pioneering educational psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky emerged, unveiling theories on children’s learning processes and emphasizing the pivotal role of tools and instruments in shaping their educational journeys.

The journey of educational instruments is one of constant evolution, driven by an insatiable quest to optimize the learning experience. From ancient civilizations to the transformative present, these instruments have played a vital role in nurturing minds and fuelling intellectual growth. As we delve deeper into the realm of educational instruments, let us acknowledge their profound impact and embrace the boundless possibilities they offer for creating a brighter, more enlightened future.

The 20th century witnessed a remarkable shift as educational films, radios, and televisions took centre stage, igniting a world of possibilities. Because in the ever-evolving landscape of education, technology has forged its path, captivating minds and transforming classrooms. But the story doesn’t end there. The latter part of the century paved the way for educational software and the mesmerizing integration of multimedia in teaching.

Fast forward to the present, we find ourselves amidst what we can name ”a digital renaissance” in education. The drumbeat of technology grows louder, beckoning us to embrace its transformative power. Online learning platforms, digital textbooks, and educational apps have become the lifeblood of modern education, creating a seismic shift in how knowledge is imparted and absorbed.

Yet, the winds of change go beyond mere tools and gadgets. They carry the echoes of progress, reflecting the dynamic interplay between educational theory, technology, and the ever-shifting fabric of society. A remarkable distinction emerges when we compare the educational instruments of the past with those of today — a divergence in technological sophistication. Gone are the days of humble blackboards and textbooks, for the present is adorned with a dazzling array of digital marvels. Online learning platforms whisk us away on immersive educational journeys, educational software unlocks doors to interactive exploration, and virtual reality tools transport us to realms previously unimaginable.

Another key difference is the breadth and diversity of subdomains that instruments are developed to address and assess. In the past, many educational tools were focused on basic literacy and numeracy skills, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. However, modern instruments address a much wider range of subjects and learning objectives, including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, as well as social sciences (SEL) fields, humanities, and the arts.

Additionally, modern educational tools often incorporate multiple modes of learning, such as visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning, which reflect a growing understanding of the diversity of learning styles and needs among students. They also often include features for assessment and feedback, such as adaptive learning algorithms and performance tracking, which can help students and teachers monitor progress and adjust their approaches to learning accordingly.

As we peer into the future, one cannot help but wonder: What untold wonders will emerge next? How technology – or maybe something else – will continue to reshape the landscape of education, moulding minds and fostering boundless curiosity? Today, there is a wide range of educational tools available to address a vast array of learning objectives and styles, enabling students and teachers to engage in dynamic and engaging educational experiences.

Overall, the use of educational instruments and tools has become increasingly sophisticated and diverse over time, reflecting the changing needs and goals of educational systems in humanity.

II. A Guide for Teachers

Although it is improbable for an educational instrument to command a price tag in the millions, akin to the revered Stradivarius violin mentioned earlier, there are nevertheless essential benchmarks that a discerning teacher can employ when assessing the worth and efficacy of such tools. Take into account the following considerations:

  • Quality of content: A high-quality educational instrument should have content that is accurate, relevant, and engaging for students. This includes things like clear explanations, interactive features, and a variety of media types (such as text, images, and videos).
  • Alignment with curriculum: An effective educational instrument should be closely aligned with the curriculum and learning objectives of the class. This means that it should address the specific knowledge and skills that students need to master, and should be designed to support the teaching and learning goals of the teacher.
  • Accessibility: A valuable educational instrument should be accessible to all students, regardless of their learning needs or abilities. This means that it should be designed with accessibility features.
  • Evidence of effectiveness: A truly valuable educational instrument should have a track record of effectiveness in improving student learning outcomes. This could include evidence from research studies, testimonials from specialists, or data showing improvements in educational performance.
    By taking these factors into account, teachers can evaluate the quality and value of educational instruments and make informed decisions about which tools to incorporate into their teaching practice. While the “cost” of an educational instrument may not be measured in dollars, the impact it has on student learning can be immeasurable. And yet in time, the impact may generate dollars; to measure indeed.

Equally, for teachers in the classroom, it is important to be familiar with the different types of educational tools and instruments available and how they can be used to enhance learning. Some tips that may be useful include:

  • Alignment with learning objectives: The educational tool should align with the learning objectives of the lesson or unit. If it does not, it may be ineffective or distract from the intended learning outcomes.
  • Quality and reliability: Teachers should be careful to select high-quality educational tools that have been tested and validated for their intended use. This can help to ensure that the tool is reliable and effective.
  • Accessibility and inclusivity: Educational tools should be accessible and inclusive to all students, regardless of their abilities or learning styles. Teachers should consider the needs of diverse learners and choose tools that are adaptable or customizable to meet their needs.
  • Age appropriateness: The educational tool should be age-appropriate and relevant to the developmental level of the students. Tools that are too simple or too complex can be ineffective or overwhelming for students.
  • Privacy and security: When using digital educational tools, teachers should be careful to protect student privacy and ensure that the tool is secure and free from potential data breaches or hacks.
  • Ethical considerations: Teachers should be mindful of the ethical considerations related to the use of educational tools, such as issues related to data privacy, bias, and fairness. They should be aware of any potential risks or unintended consequences associated with the tool and take steps to minimize them.

By being mindful of these factors, teachers can choose and use educational tools in a way that maximizes their effectiveness and minimizes potential risks or negative impacts on students.

However, if we want to connect with the profound purpose of education — the axiological function of teaching individuals to generate new knowledge — we discover that the ultimate teacher is not only an applier of education but also its creator.

And so, for those courageous teachers who embark on the quest to craft an educational instrument, several key elements demand careful consideration:

1. Vision and Purpose: A remarkable educational instrument begins with a clear vision and purpose. It requires a teacher who envisions a transformative learning experience that goes beyond rote memorization and embraces the cultivation of critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving skills. By defining a compelling purpose, the teacher sets the stage for an instrument that empowers students to become active participants in their learning journey.

2. Student-Centred Approach: At the core of every exceptional educational instrument lies a student-centred approach. Recognizing the diverse needs, interests, and abilities of learners, the teacher designs an instrument that tailors to individual strengths while fostering collaboration and inclusivity. By placing students at the heart of the educational process, the instrument becomes a catalyst for personalized growth and development.

3. Engagement and Motivation: An effective educational instrument captivates students’ attention and fuels their intrinsic motivation to learn. It leverages innovative teaching methods, interactive technologies, and real-world applications to create an engaging and immersive learning environment. By igniting curiosity and kindling a passion for knowledge, the instrument sparks a thirst for learning that endures beyond the confines of the classroom.

4. Flexibility and Adaptability: In an ever-evolving educational landscape, an exceptional instrument demonstrates flexibility and adaptability. It embraces change, seamlessly integrating emerging technologies, pedagogical advancements, and evolving societal needs. The teacher continuously evaluates and adjusts the instrument to meet the dynamic demands of education, ensuring its relevance and effectiveness.

5. Continuous Assessment and Improvement: A truly outstanding educational instrument thrives on continuous assessment and improvement. The teacher employs a variety of assessment methods to gauge student progress and identify areas for enhancement. By collecting and analysing feedback, the instrument evolves, refining its design, instructional strategies, and content to maximize student learning outcomes.

6. Collaboration and Professional Growth: The creation of an extraordinary educational instrument is not an isolated endeavour. It calls for collaboration with colleagues, sharing best practices, and engaging in ongoing professional development. By nurturing a culture of collaboration, the teacher harnesses collective expertise, expanding the horizons of what the instrument can achieve.

7. Ethical Considerations: In the pursuit of crafting an educational instrument, ethical considerations must guide every decision. The teacher ensures that the instrument promotes fairness, respects students’ diverse backgrounds, and safeguards their well-being. By upholding high ethical standards, the instrument becomes a force for positive transformation, nurturing a sense of integrity and social responsibility.

In essence, the educational instruments are the conduits that bridge the gap between abstract knowledge and tangible understanding, guiding students on transformative journeys of discovery. At their core, educational tools possess the remarkable ability to bridge the gap between theoretical concepts and practical understanding. They provide the scaffolding upon which students can build their understanding, enabling them to grasp complex ideas and delve into the depths of various subjects. Through the strategic integration of these tools, educators can bring clarity and tangibility to abstract notions that might otherwise remain elusive. These instruments of learning come in a myriad of forms, ranging from traditional resources like textbooks, whiteboards, and manipulative to cutting-edge digital platforms, simulations, and virtual reality experiences. Each tool serves a unique purpose, offering various ways for students to engage with the material, participate actively in the learning process, and develop a deeper understanding of the subject matter. Moreover, educational tools hold the potential to ignite curiosity, stimulate critical thinking, and foster creativity among students acting as catalysts for exploration. In the ever-evolving landscape of education, the value of educational tools cannot be overstated. They form the backbone of instructional strategies, offering teachers’ versatile means to engage students, differentiate instruction, and address individual learning needs. By leveraging the strengths of various tools, educators can create a rich tapestry of learning experiences that cater to diverse learning styles and foster inclusive classrooms.

Instruments of learning are not merely accessories to education; they are the substance that breathes vitality and efficacy into teaching and learning.

Instruments of learning are not merely accessories to education; they are the substance that breathes vitality and efficacy into teaching and learning. To discuss the importance of it would be a loss of time. From the time-honoured blackboards and textbooks to the awe-inspiring digital platforms and immersive virtual reality tools, the evolution of these instruments has revolutionized education, embracing accessibility, inclusivity, and boundless engagement within the classroom’s hallowed walls.

Yet, like any magnificent symphony, we must harmonize with caution. By investing in or even better creating high-quality, effective educational instruments, we can create learning environments that are engaging, inclusive, and ultimately more successful for students.

And so, educational tools and instruments have played a critical role in shaping the way we learn and teach. From blackboards and textbooks to digital platforms and virtual reality tools, the evolution of educational instruments has allowed for greater accessibility, inclusivity, and engagement in the learning experience. However, as with any tool, it is important to be mindful of their strengths and limitations and to choose and use them in a way that maximizes their effectiveness and minimizes potential risks or negative impacts on students. Their quality, value, and impact vary immensely, and because the educational instruments proved to be such important catalysts over time, teachers are invited from now on to explore the depths of this so-common subject.

So, have you ever wondered why some musical instruments cost millions?



1. Cubides-Mateus, N. (2018). Educational Instruments and Tools: Historical Review and Reflections on Their Impact on Teaching and Learning. In Educational Tools in Tourism (pp. 13-29). Springer, Cham. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-65762-2_2

2. St. John, E. P. (2009). Instruments for teaching: an annotated bibliography. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(3), 417-439. DOI: 10.1080/00220270802199201

3. Lai, K. W., & Bower, M. (2019). How educational technologies facilitate student success: Evidence for the role of adaptive learning systems. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(4), 883-907. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-018-9643-2

4. Loveless, A., & Ellis, V. (2019). The interaction between pedagogy, tools and task: Teachers’ pedagogical reasoning and technology integration. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(6), 3052-3069. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12858

Further reading

1. Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom. Harvard University Press.

2. Zhao, Y. (2018). What works may hurt: Side effects in education. Teachers College Press.

3. Warschauer, M. (2010). Laptops and literacy: Learning in the wireless classroom. Teachers College Press.

4. Selwyn, N. (2016). Education and technology: Key issues and debates. Bloomsbury Publishing.

5. Gee, J.P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Palgrave Macmillan.

6. Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Ludgate, H. (2016). NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition. The New Media Consortium.

* Please note that some of the references provided may focus on broader topics related to education and technology, rather than specifically addressing the history and differentiation of educational instruments. However, they can provide valuable insights into the impact of educational tools and technologies on teaching and learning.



Oana Onciu, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Iasi, Romania

Received: 20.05.2023. Accepted: 22.05.2023
© Oana Onciu. This open access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence CC BY, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited:

Onciu, O. (2023). Instruments of Learning: Know the Worth of Educational Tools. Journal of Digital Pedagogy, 2(1) 3-7. Bucharest: Institute for Education.


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